Ways of expressing refusal in English and Armenian

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Աշխատանքի տեսակ՝ Դիպլոմային
Աշխատանքի ID` 4625

Բովանդակություն

Introduction
Chapter 1. Refusal in English
1.1The Speech Act Theory and History.
1.2.Types of Speech Act
1.3. Speech act of Refusal in English
Chapter 2. Refusal in Armenian
2.1. Speech Act of Refusal in the Armenian Language
Conclusion

Հատված

Communicative, or pragmatic, competence is the ability to use language forms in a wide range of environments, factoring in the relationships between the speakers involved and the social and cultural context of the situation. Speakers who may be considered fluent in a second language due to their mastery of the grammar and vocabulary of that language may still lack pragmatic competence; in other words, they may still be unable to produce language that is socially and culturally appropriate.
Speakers employ a variety of communicative acts, or speech acts, to achieve their communicative goals, including Searle’s seminal broad categories – classification, commissives, declarations, directives, expressives, and representatives – as well as more specific acts such as apologies, requests, complaints, and refusals. A great deal of researches has been done on the speech acts in general, as well as on speech acts of apologies and requests. Fewer studies on complaints and refusals have appeared in the literature.

Գրականության ցանկ

1. Al-Eryani, Abdullah A. 2007. Refusal Strategies by Yemeni EFL Learners. Asian EFL Journal, vol. 9, issue 2, article 2, June 2007, ISSN: 1738-1460.
2. Brown, P (1994). Investigating the production of speech act sets. In S. M. Gass & J. Neu (Eds.), Speech acts across cultures: Challenges to communication in a second language (pp. 21-44). New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
3. Brigitte Nerlich and David D. Clarke, Language, Action and Context. The Early History of Pragmatics in Europe and America, 1780–1930 (Amsterdam: Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1996)
4. Barry Smith, “Towards a History of Speech Act Theory”, in A. Burkhardt (ed.), Speech Acts, Meanings and Intentions. Critical Approaches to the Philosophy of John R. Searle (Berlin/New York: deGruyter, 1990.
5. Bardovi-Harlig, K. 1991. Saying “no” in English: Native and Nonnative rejections. In L. Bouton and Y. Kachru (Eds), Pragmatics and Language Learning, Vol. 2, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois.
6. Beebe, L. M. et. al. 1990. Pragmatic Transfer in the ESL Refusals. In R. Scarcella, E. Andersen, S. D. Krashen (Eds), On the Development of Communicative Competence in a Second Language.. New York: Newbury House.
7. Brown, Penelope and Steven C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Searle, J.R. 1969. Speech Acts. An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. London: Cambridge University Press.
8. Fraser, (1978). Perspectives on politeness. Journal of Pragmatics, 14(2), 219-236. Retrieved December 30, 2005, from Science Direct.
9. Grice, P. 1989. Studies in the Way of Words, Harvard UP, Cambridge & London.
10. Goffman, Ewing, (1967). International Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behaviour. New York: Double day Anchor Books.
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